Food Homes

 Food Homes Essay

CHAPTER 4

THERMODYNAMICAL,

THERMOPHYSICAL, AND

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF

FRUITS AND FRUIT PRODUCTS

4. 1 . INTRODUCTION

Most processed and lots of freshly consumed fruits get some type of heat or cooling down during controlling or making. Design and operation of processes regarding heat transfer needs special attention due to heat sensitivity of fruits. The two theoretical and empirical relationships used when designing, or functioning, heat techniques need familiarity with the heat properties with the foods into consideration. Food cold weather properties can be explained as those real estate controlling the transfer of heat within a specified food. These homes are usually classified (Perry and Green, 1973) into thermodynamical properties, viz, specific volume level, specific heat, and enthalpy; and high temperature transport houses, namely, energy conductivity and thermal diffusivity. When considering the heating or perhaps cooling of foods, various other physical houses must be regarded because of their inbuilt relationship while using ‘‘pure'' thermal properties pointed out, such as denseness and viscosity. Therefore , a grouping of thermal and related homes, known as thermophysical properties, give a powerful application for design and prediction of heat transfer operation during handling, finalizing, canning, and distribution of foods (Fig. 4. 1). Abundant information concerning thermophysical houses of foodstuff (Polley ou al., 1980; Wallapapan ou al., 1983; Choi and Okos, 1986; Rahman, 1995) is available towards the design industrial engineer. However , getting relevant data is usually the controlling part of the design of specific food operation, and the best answer may be the experimental determination. This chapter provides data and information intended for thermal method calculation intended for fruits and fruit goods, including a brief description of more commonly utilized methods for measurement and dedication of thermophysical properties.

4. 2 . THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES' IDENTIFICATION

Thermophysical real estate include different types of parameters linked to the temperature transfer procedures present during fruit control. It is well known that warmth can be transferred by three ways: radiation, louage, and convection. Radiation is a transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. The range of wavelength 0. 8–400 mm is referred to as thermal light, since this infrared radiation is quite readily 73

74

Fresh fruit Manufacturing

Certain volume

Certain heat

∆H (kJ/kg−1)

Energy conductivity

e (W/mв€’1/ Kв€’1)

Thermal diffusivity

a (m2/ sв€’1)

Denseness

r (kg / mв€’3)

Porosity

at the

Viscosity

" Pure”

Thermophysical

properties

cp (kJ/kgв€’1/ Cв€’1)

Enthalpy

Thermodynamical

properties

d (m3/kg)

m (Pa s)

Heat transfer properties

Physical properties

Figure 4. 1 ) Thermophysical houses associated to fruit finalizing.

absorbed and converted to heat energy. A body giving out or absorbing the maximum likely amount of radiant energy is known as a ‘‘black body. '' Energy emitted by a dark body is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann law:

Q Вј sitting 4

(4: 1)

wherever s may be the Stefan–Boltzmann continuous; A the location of copy, and To the absolute temperature. For not any ‘‘perfect'' black bodies, because real body are, Frequency. (4. 1) is fixed by since factor noted a emissivity («):

Queen Вј sВ«AT 4

(4: 2)

Emissivity values of foods are inside the range 0. 5–0. 97 (Karel ain al., 1975). Conduction is a movement of heat by direct transfer of molecular strength within solids (for case in point, heating of any fruit pulp by direct fire through metal containers). Convection is definitely the transfer of heat by groups of molecules that move because of a ´

gradient of density or agitation (for example, the stirring of tomato puree). Heat copy may take place: (i) in steady-state method by keeping frequent the heat difference between two elements or (ii) under unsteady-state way when the temperature is continually changing. Computation of heat transfer under these conditions is extremely...

References: Alvarado, J. D. D. (1991). Specific high temperature of dried up pulps of fruits. L. Food Method Eng. 18: 361–368.

Andrieu, J., Gonnet, E. and Laurent, Meters. (1989). Heat conductivity and diffusivity of extruded Durum Wheat

Dinero

Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. Elizabeth. and Lightfoot, E. N. (2002). Transportation Phenomena, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY,

920 pp.

Bourne, M. C. (1982). Meals Texture and Viscosity: Principle and Dimension. Academic Press, NY, UNITED STATES.

Chang, H. D. and Tao, D. C. (1981). Correlations of enthalpies of food devices. J. Meals Sci. 46: 1493–1498.

Choi, Y. and Okos, Meters. R. (1986). Effects of heat and formula on the energy properties of foods. In Food

Engineering and Procedure Applications, Volume

Constenla, Deb. M., Exuberante, J. Elizabeth. and Crapiste, G. H. (1989). Thermophysical properties of clarified apple juice as a

function of attention and heat

Crapiste, G. H. and Lozano, T. E. (1988). Effect of attention and pressure on the cooking food point surge of any fruit juice

and related sugar solutions

Da Silva, J. A., Goncalves, Meters. P. and Rao, Meters. A. (1992). Rheological homes of high-methoxyl pectin and locust

veggie gum alternatives in stable shear

Dickerson R. T. (1965). A great apparatus for measurement of thermal diffusivity of foods. Food Technology. 19(5),

198–204.

Dickerson Jr., R. Watts. (1968). Heat properties of foods. Inside the freezing maintenance of food, Vol. two, 4th ed. AVI

Submitting Company, Incorporation., Westport, COMPUTERTOMOGRAFIE, Chapter two, pp

Dickerson, Jr., R. W. (1969). Thermal homes of foods. 4th impotence., vol. a couple of (Tressler, D.; Van Arsdel; Copley, M. J. Eds),

AVI

Drouzas, A. Electronic., Maroulis, Unces. B., Karathanos, V. T. and Saravacos, G. D. (1991). Indirect and direct method perseverance of the powerful thermal diffusivity of kornig starch. M. Food Eng. 13(2): 91–94.

Farkas, M. E. and Singh, Ur. P. (1991). Physical real estate of air-dried and freeze-dried chicken white colored meat. M. Food Sci.

Fitch, G. L. (1935). A new energy conductivity device. Am. Phys. Teacher 3(3): 135–136.

Gordon, C. and Thorne, T. (1990). Determination of the heat diffusivity of foods coming from temperature dimension

during chilling

Gupta, Capital t. R. (1990). Specific temperature of American indian unleavened smooth bread at various level of cooking food. J. Method. Eng. 13:

217–220.

Harper, J. U. C. and El Sahrigi. (1965). Viscometric behavior of tomato concentrates. J. Foodstuff Sci. 35: 470–474.

Hayakawa, K. (1973). New computational procedure for deciding the apparent thermal diffusivity of a stable body

estimated with an infinite piece

Hayashi, E., Nishikawa, To. and Uei, I. (1974). Studies on thermal conductivity measurement of granular elements in

system of solid, smooth mixture

Heldman, D. R. 1975. Foodstuff Process Engineering Connecticut: AVI Publishing.

Heldman, D. L. and Singh, R. P. (1981). Foodstuff Process Engineering. AVI Creating Company, Incorporation., Westport, CT.

Honing, P. 1953. Rules Of Glucose Technology. Volume 1 . Elsevier Publishing Business, New York.

Hsieh, R. C., Lerew, T. E. and Heldman, G. R. (1977). Predictions of freezing occasions for foods as motivated by product

properties

Hsu, M. -H., Mannapperuma, T. D. and Singh, L. P. (1991). Physical and thermal properties of pistachios. J. Agric.

Hwang, M. P. and Hayakawa, T. (1979). A specific heat calorimeter for food. J. Meals Sci. 44(2): 435–441.

Ibarz, A.; Vicente, M.; Graell, J. (1987). Rheological habit of apple juice and pear juice and the concentrates.

Jindal, V. K. and Murakami, E. G. (1984). Cold weather properties of shredded coconut. In Architectural and Meals, Vol. you,

McKenna, M. M

Johnson, J. N., Martin, J. R. and Porter, L. S. (1975). Determination of viscosity of food devices. In Theory,

Dedication and Power over Physical Homes of Food Materials, Rha Editor, C

Jowitt, Ur., Eseher, Farreneheit., Kent, M., McKenna, 3rd there’s r. and Roques, M. (1983). Physical Real estate of Foods, Vols. one particular and installment payments on your

Karel, Meters., Fennema, U. R. and Lund, M. B. (1975). Heat transfer in foods. In Rules of Meals Science. Component II:

Physical Principles of Food Preservation, Fennema, U

Kent, Meters., Christiansen, T., van Haneghem, I. A., Holtz, Elizabeth., Morley, Meters. J., Nesvadba, P. and Poulsen, T. P. (1984).

Keppler, 3rd there’s r. A. and Boose, M. R. (1970). Thermal houses of frosty sucrose alternatives. Trans. ASAE 13(3):

335–339.

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Substance Technology (1964). 2nd. male impotence. John Willey and Sons, Inc., BIG APPLE, London, Sydney.

Kokini, J. L. (1992). Rheological homes of food. In Handbook of Meals Engineering, Heldman, D. R. and Lund,

D. B

Kubota, K., Matsumoto, Big t., Kurisu, H., Suzuki, T. and Hosaka, H. (1980). The equation regarding temperature and

attentiveness of the thickness and viscosity of sweets, salt and skim dairy solutions

Kunz, I. M. and Kauzmann, W. (1974). Hydration of proteins and polypeptides. Adv. Protein Chem. 28: 239–242.

Lewis, Meters. J. (1987). Physical Real estate of Food and Food Processing Devices. Ellis Horwood Ltd/ VCH Verlagsgessellschaft, GmbH, England/FRG.

Exuberante, J. Elizabeth., Urbicain, Meters. J. and Rotstein, Elizabeth. (1979). Cold weather conductivity of apples as being a function of moisture

content

Lozano, J. E., Urbicain, M. L. and Rotstein, E. (1980). Total porosity and available pore porosity in the drying out of fruits.

Lozano, M. E., Urbicain, M. M. and Rotstein, E. (1983). Shrinkage, porosity and large density of foodstuffs for changing

moisture content

Mannapperuma, J. Deb. and Singh, R. L. (1989). Your computer aided means for the conjecture of houses and freezing/

thawing times during the foods

Maroulis, S. D. and Saravacos, G. Deb. (1990). Density and porosity in blow drying starch supplies. J. Meals Sci. 55(5):

1367–1375.

Maroulis, Z. M., Shah, T., Saravacos, G. D. (1991). Thermal conductivity of gelatinized starches. L. Food Sci. 56(3).

Mattea, M., Urbicain, M. M. and Rotstein, E. Ur. (1986). Prediction of cold weather conductivity of vegetable foods by the

successful medium theory

Mattea, Meters., Urbicain, M. J. and Rotstein, At the. R. (1989). Effective heat conductivity of cellular tissues during blow drying:

prediction with a computer aided model

Mattick, L. Ur. and Moyer, J. C. 1983. Make up of any fruit juice. J. Assoc. 0: Capital t Anal. Chem. 66: 1251.

Maxwell, M. C. (1904). A Treatise on Electric power and Magnetism, Vol. one particular, 3rd education. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 440.

Maxwell, M. L., Kurt, F. A., and Strelka, B. T. (1984). Particular Volume (density) of saccharine solutions (corn syrups

 Persef Analysis Paper

Persef Analysis Paper

Samson, Mary Ann C. 11201541 Persef1 A59 Prof. Katrina Diano Provided the results of the evaluation, the career I see myself in years via…...

Read..

Essay in Five Thoughts for the Future

Five Heads for the Future -- Howard Gardner Book Review Published to: Mr. Imran Saqib Submitted by: Zulfiqar Ali Date…...

Read..
 Essay regarding Captivity Narrative

Essay regarding Captivity Narrative

What Makes a Captivity Story? Captivity narratives had been commonly popular in the 1700's by both equally European and American foule. Captivity narratives in America portrayed either white…...

Read..
 Forever Article

Forever Article

GALANTRY HONOURS Param Vir Chakra 1 ) The highest decor for valour is the Param Vir Chakra whcih may be the awarded for the most conspicuous braveness…...

Read..

Paper about Family Day

Svettlana Marie H. Verra Mar 1, 2013 Year three or more – Rights CLE Reflection Paper in Family Time Manresa College never forgets to hold an event…...

Read..

Essay about Euthanasia: Destiny Worse Than Death

Essay several – Evaluate, Contrast, Activity Fate More serious than Fatality Euthanasia, which can be synonymous while using terms: aided suicide, physician-assisted suicide, and mercy eliminating in essence…...

Read..