LCA - Life Cycle Examination





Lifestyle Cycle Examination

From the Beginning to the Current State

Walter K16pffer

Matching address: Prof. Dr . Walter K16pffer, C. A. U. GmbH, WOHNGEMEINSCHAFT Assessment of Chemicals, Products and Systems,

Daimlerstr. 23, D-63303 Dreieich-Frankfurt, Indonesia


The fundamental idea of LCA is that almost all environmental burdens

connected with a product or service or services have to be evaluated, back to the raw materials and down to squander removal. Therefore ,

the term " Life Pattern Assessment" is far more precise compared to the

German " Okobilanz" or perhaps the French " & obilan". This simple idea

is without a doubt true, and LCA may be the only environmental

assessment tool which eliminates positive scores for measurements which only consists in the shifting of burdens.

In the years by 1990 to 1993, SETAC and SETAC-Europe

shaped the introduction of LCA in a series of essential

workshops culminating in the " Code of Practice" of 1993. The results of these workshops can be illustrated by famous

SETAC-triangle. It displays the basic composition which is right now

underlying the standardizing actions of ISO: 1 . Target definition and scoping, 2 . Inventory evaluation, 3. Effect assessment, 4. Improvement assessment.

The framework recently defined by INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION FUR STANDARDISIERUNG differs from the SETAC composition only within the last element which is sometimes called " Interpretation" in the foreign standard 14040. According to ISO, " Improvement Assessment" is only one of the many activities

which may follow LCA but is not section of the true examination.

The components associated with an LCA will be described and interpreted in

detail, SETAC vs . INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION FUR STANDARDISIERUNG. Recent advancements and actions initiated by ISO, SPOLD and other organisations complete the review. Keywords: Club of Rome; Code of Practice; environmental

analysis; goal description and scoping; history, LCA; impact evaluation; improvement evaluation; interpretation evaluation; inventory research; Inventory Desk; ISOLP; LCA; Life Routine

Assessment; SETAC; SPOLD

you History

1 ) 1 Early beginnings

Existence Cycle Analysis or LCA was developed around 70

at the Midwest Research Institute in the United States [1].

ESPR - Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 4 (4) 223 -- 228 (1997)

ecnmed nnhli~her~ D-R6R99 d. anckher~, Germ~nv

In European countries, early LCA-like work began soon afterwards at

Battelle Frankfurt [2], in the Open University or college in England [3], at EMPA in Switzerland [4] and by Sundstr6m in Laxa, sweden.

The p r we m a r y t o p i c watts a t the c o meters p a r a t my spouse and i v e a n a l y s we s o f packaging under environmental aspects, especially with

regard to resource preservation and economical.

1 . 2 Club of Rome

It had been the time in the well t n um w and " Are accountable to the Membership of Rome" [5] associated with the initially oil turmoil. Suddenly it probably is

obvious that our resources will not likely last permanently and that

the exponential economical growth might result in an environmental and social catastrophe. After the second oil crisis when the OPEC cartel was broken and the oil rates went

straight down, the LCA activities were continued with a few experts in The european union and in america, at least at an even more moderate level,

but devoid of true growth.

1 . a few The basic idea

The immediate revival of LCA in the late 80's is difficult to

figure out. N um t just packaging, nevertheless also meters a in y different

products were analysed " from support to grave". The basic

thought of LCA is the fact all environmental burdens connected

with a products or services have to be assessed, back to the

raw materials and down to waste removal. Therefore , the

term " Life Cycle Assessment" is more precise than the

A language like german " Okobilanz" or the France " & obilan", although

at least in theory the inventory entails the handling of

every inputs and outputs. Used, however , managing can

under no circumstances be finish, especially not for energy.

This kind of basic thought is undoubtedly true, and LCA is the just

environmental assessment tool which will avoids positive ratings

pertaining to measurements which usually only is composed in the moving of




1 . 4 SETAC


References: Fluids Wich Can be Called an LCA Today. Int. L. LCA

0.5 (1996) 62-65

2/3 (1997), in press

ESPR -- Environ

(1995) 378-383


impact assessment. Committee Draft CD 14042, 1997

Foreign Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Study. Tenside 2 (1995) 110-121

3rd there’s r. G

Examine. Rev. 12 (1992) 245-269


(Editorial). Int. M. LCA 2/2 (1997) sixty one


Foundation for Environ. Education. Sandestin, Florida,

February 1-7, 1992

Brussels, Oct (1994) 11-15


Feasibility and Accuracy. Int. T. LCA one-half (1996) 151-158

[24] L. M

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