DOCUMENT IN PRESS
Tourism Management 26 (2005) 539–548
Romance between travel and social heritage managing: evidence via Hong Kong$ Bob McKerchera, *, Pamela S. Con. Hoa, Hilary du Crosb
b a School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Put up Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Section of Location, The University or college of Hong Kong/School of Hotel and Tourism Administration, The Hk Polytechnic College or university, Hong Kong
Received 24 Nov 2003; recognized 4 February 2004
Subjective This newspaper examines the size of the relationship between tourism and cultural history management inside the established city destination of Hong Kong. In the past, conﬂict theory has formed the basis of most of the research of interactions between tourism and other sectors. However , a conﬂict paradigm may not be the best framework. Instead, the writers outline a continuum reﬂecting different amounts of maturity in the relationship between these two groups. Seven distinct possible relationships are identiﬁed, that are inﬂuenced by ﬁve mitigating conditions. r 2004 Elsevier Limited. All legal rights reserved. Keywords: Cultural travel; Cultural history management; Interactions; Conﬂict
1 . Introduction Travel and leisure and ethnic heritage administration (CHM) often have an awkward relationship. Traditionally, CHM has been in charge of the supply and conservation of ethnical heritage assets, while the broadly based travel sector offers assumed the merchandise development and promotion part. Two other views of the nature from the relationship have been completely promulgated, that reﬂect distinct extremes of the conﬂict/co-operation dichotomy. On the one hand, many people have suggested that tourism and CHM are contrapuesto (Berry, year 1994; Boniface, 1998; Jacobs & Gale, 1994; Jansen-Verbeke, 1998), and that for this reason incompatibility, a conﬂict romantic relationship is unavoidable. The social heritage sector argues that cultural ideals are sacrificed for industrial gain (Urry, 1990; Daniel, 1996; ICOMOS, 1999), while tourism proponents feel that tourism values are compromised if a management frame of mind exists that any ‘‘tourismiﬁcation'' $
Financing for this project was presented to by a grant from the University's Grant Committee of the Hk SAR Authorities. *Corresponding creator. Tel.: +852-2766-6553; fax: +852-23629362. E-mail addresses: [email protected] edu. hk (B. McKercher). 0261-5177/$ - discover front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10. 1016/j. tourman. 2004. 02. 018
has a corrupting inﬂuence (Hovinen, 1995; Fyall & Garrod, 1996). The choice argument is that the sharing in the resource creates partnership chances, whereby mutually beneﬁcial effects can be attained. Heritage travel and leisure reintroduces visitors to their cultural roots (Donert & Mild, 1996; McCarthy, 1994) and reinvigorates people's interest in record or lifestyle (Squire, 1996; Tourism Canada, 1991; WTO, nd). Further, culture as a tourist attraction can be a highly effective force in arguing a region's ancient, cultural, religious and professional past needs to be conserved (see for example Harrison, 1997; Frew & Shaw, 1995; Brokensha & Gruldberg, 1992; Nolan & Nolan, 1992; Simons, 1996). Concerns can be raised about the validity of dichotomous relationships that portray the discussion between the two of these sectors because representing either extreme of any conﬂict/partnership continuum. Are conﬂict or comanagement the only feasible scenarios which exist between those two diverse stakeholders, or may other likely relationships are present? This conventional paper explores the dynamics in the relationship among tourism and CHM in the context of the established, downtown destination of Hong Kong. It will so from the perspective in the asset director that must handle the impacts of travel and leisure.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
540 B. McKercher et approach. / Travel and leisure Management 26 (2005) 539–548
2 . Conﬂict and human relationships between tourism and other stakeholders The nature of the relationship...
References: Abakerli, S. (2001). A evaluate of advancement and preservation policies in environmentally delicate regions of Brazil. Geoforum, 32(4), 551–565. Altman, J. (1989). Tourism issues for primitive Australians. Annals of Travel and leisure Research, 16, 456–474. Altman, J. T., & Finlayson, J. (1991). Aborigines and tourism: A great issues newspaper prepared intended for the ecologically sustainable operating group upon tourism. Anderson, D. L., & Brownish, P. M. (1984). Displacement process in recreation. Journal of Enjoyment Research, 6(1), 61–73. Fruit, S. (1994). Conservation, capacity and cashﬂows—tourism and traditional building supervision. In A. Versus. Seaton (Ed. ), Tourism: State of the art (pp. 712–718). Chichester: Wiley. Boniface, P. (1998). Tourism tradition. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(3), 746–749. Brokensha, L., & Gruldberg, H. (1992). Cultural travel and leisure in Australia: A written report on ethnic tourism. Canberra: AGPS. Budowski, G. (1976). Tourism and environmental conservation: Conﬂict, coexistence or symbiosis? Environmental Conservation, 3, 27–31. Budowski, G. (1977). Travel and preservation: Conﬂict, cohabitation or cooperation? Parks, 1, 3–6. Butler, R. T. (1991). Travel, environment and sustainable development. Environmental Conservation, 18(3), 201–209. Chang, Big t. C. (2000). Singapore's very little India: A tourist attraction as a competitive landscape. Metropolitan Studies, 37(2), 343–366. Coppock, J. T. (1982). Travel and leisure and preservation. Tourism Management, 3(4), 270–276. Dana, L. P. (1999). The social cost of travel. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(4), 60–63. Daniel, Sumado a. P. (1996). Tourism party performances: Credibility and creativeness. Annals of Tourism Analysis, 23(4), 780–797. Donert, K., & Mild, D. (1996). Capitalising in location and heritage: Tourism and monetary reorganisation. In Argentiere La Basse, High French Alps. In T. Harrison, & W. Husbands (Eds. ), Practicing responsible tourism (pp. 193–215). Brisbane: Wiley. i Cros, L. (2001). New to assist in planning for sustainable cultural history tourism. Foreign Journal of Tourism Analysis, 3, 165–170. Frew, At the. A., & Shaw, Ur. N. (1995). Industrial tourism; the experience and the motivation to check out. In Ur. Shaw (Ed. ), Refereed proceedings with the national travel and leisure and hospitality conference (pp. 88–105). CAUTHE/VUT, Melbourne. Fyall, A., & Garrod, N. (1996). Lasting heritage travel: Achievable aim or hard-to-find ideal? In M. Brown, N. Evans, & L. Callaghan (Eds. ), Handling cultural helpful tourism (pp. 50–76). Sunderland, UK: British Education Writers. Gorman, A. (1988). Travel and leisure Trojan: Horses or white colored knight? The role of social influence analysis. In W. Faulkner, & M. Fagence (Eds. ), Frontiers of Australian tourism (pp. 199–210). Canberra: Bureau of Tourism Research. Gossling, S i9000. (2002). Human–environmental relations with tourism. Annals of Travel Research, 29(2), 539–556. Gramman, J. They would., & Burdge, R. J. (1991). The effects of recreation desired goals on conﬂict resolution: The case of waterskiers and ﬁshermen. Journal of Leisure Analysis, 13(1), 15–27.
Harrison, J. (1997). Museums and touristic expectations. Annals of Travel Research, 24(1), 23–40. Hendee, J. C., Stankey, G. H., & Lucas, 3rd there�s r. C. (1979). Wilderness managing, forest service. Washington: ALL OF US Dept of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication Number 1365. Holder, A. (2000). Winter tourism and environmental conﬂict. Intercontinental Journal of Tourism Exploration, 2(4), 247–260. Hovinen, G. R. (1995). Heritage issues in city tourism: A great assessment of recent trends in Lancaster County. Tourism Management, 16(5), 381–388. ICOMOS. (1999). Cultural travel and leisure charter. Paris: ICOMOS. http:// www.icomos.org (retrieved February 11, 2000). Jackson, E. T., & Wong, R. A. G. (1982). Perceived conﬂicts between downtown cross country snowboarders and snowmobilers in Alberta. Journal of Leisure Exploration, 14(1), 47–62. Jacob, G. R., & Schreyer, Ur. (1980). Conﬂict in outdoor recreation: A theoretical point of view. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(4), 368–380. Jacobs, J., & Gale, F. (1994). Tourism plus the protection of aboriginal social sites. Canberra: Australian History Commission, Unique Publication Series No . 15. Jamieson, Watts. (1995). The utilization of indicators in monitoring: The economic effects of social tourism projects. ICOMOS Canada, 4(3), 5pp. http://www.icomos.org/canada/bulletin/ vol4 no3 jamieson e. html (retrieved June 6, 2000). Jansen-Verbeke, Meters. (1998). Tourismiﬁcation and historic cities. Annals of Travel and leisure Research, 25(3), 739–741. Kerr, A. (1994). Strange bedfellows: An anxious alliance among cultural preservation and travel. Canada: ICOMOS, 3(3), http:// www.icomos.org/canada/bulletin/vol3 no3 kerr e. html (retrieved June six, 2000). Full, B., Pizam, A., & Milman, A. (1993). Cultural impacts of tourism: Web host perceptions. Annals of Travel and leisure Research, 20, 650–665. Korper, S. They would., Druckman, D., & Broome, B. J. (1986). Value difference and conﬂict quality. The Journal of Interpersonal Psychology, 126(3), 415–417. Madrigal, R. (1993). A tale of tourism in two urban centers. Annals of Tourism Exploration, 20, 336–353. Markwick, Meters. C. (2000). Golf tourism development, stakeholders, differing discourses and substitute agendas: The situation of The island of malta. Tourism Supervision, 21(5), 515–524. Marsh, M. S. (1986). Wilderness travel and leisure. In Tourism and the environment, conﬂict or perhaps harmony (pp. 47–58). Edmonton: Canadian Contemporary society of Biologists. Mathieson, A., & Wall structure, G. (1982). Tourism economical, physical and social impacts. London: Longman. McCarthy, M. (1994). Will be sweet dreams made of this? Tourism in Bali and Eastern Philippines. Northcote, Vic.: IRIP. McKercher, B. (1993). Some critical truths regarding tourism: Understanding tourism's cultural and environmental impacts. Log of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 6–16. McKercher, B., & du Cros, H. (2002). Cultural tourism: The partnership between travel and social heritage supervision. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. McKercher, M., Ho, L., & ni Cros, They would. (2002). The partnership between tourism and ethnical heritage. In K. Chon, V. Heung, & T. Wong (Eds. ), Travel in Asia: Development, advertising sustainability (pp. 386–394). Hong Kong: The Hk Polytechnic University or college, SAR. Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1988). Social impacts of tourism upon central Florida. Annals of Travel Research, 15, 191–204. Nolan, M. D., & Nolan, S. (1992). Religious sites as travel attractions in Europe. Annals of Travel Research, 19, 68–78. NTHP (1999). How to get started: How to achieve heritage travel and leisure. Washington: National Trust to get Heritage Maintenance, Washington, 45pp.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
548 B. McKercher et 's. / Travel and leisure Management 21 (2005) 539–548 international points of views (pp. 519–534). Bureau of Tourism Exploration, Canberra. Squire, S. T. (1996). Fictional tourism and sustainable tourism: Promoting ‘Anne of Green Gables' in Prince Edward Island. Record of Sustainable Tourism, 4(3), 119–134. Stephenson, M. Um., & Pops, G. M. (1989). Conﬂict resolution methods and the insurance plan process. General public Administration Assessment, 49, 463–473. Swarbrooke, L. (1996). To a eco friendly future to get cultural travel and leisure: A European perspective. In Meters. Robinson, In. Evans, & P. Callaghan (Eds. ), Tourism and cultural alter (pp. 27–256). Sunderland, UK: Centre for Travel and Tourism, Business Education Publishers. TCA. (1998). Our heritage—it's our business—TCA action plan. Sydney: Tourism Authorities of Sydney. Tourism Canada. (1991). Examinative study around the cultural travel sector. Ottawa: Tourism Canada. Urry, T. (1990). The tourist eyes. London: SAGE Publications. WTO. (nd). Interpersonal and social impacts of tourist motions. Madrid: Globe Tourism Business. O'Grady, L. (1981). Third world stopover, The tourism argument. Geneva: Universe Council of Churches. Pearson, L., & Dunn, K. (1999). Re-identifying Wollongong: Dispossession and the regional citizenry. In J. Molloy, & J. Davies (Eds. ), Tourism and food: Delighting the senses Component 2 (pp. 67–72). Canberra: BTR. Perdue, R. R., Long, T., & Allen, L. (1987). Rural citizen tourism awareness and attitudes. Annals of Tourism Exploration, 14, 420–429. Perdue, 3rd there�s r. R., Extended, T., & Allen, M. (1990). Citizen support for tourism advancement. Annals of Tourism Research, 17, 586–599. Pigram, M. J. (1984). Tourism inside the coastal zone: The question of public gain access to. In O'Rourke (Ed. ), Contemporary problems in Aussie tourism (pp. 1–14). Sydney: IAG. Romeril, M. (1989). Tourism plus the environment conform or discord? Tourism Management, 10(3), 204–208. Simons, M. S. (1996). Protection of heritage sites—Simons actions. In G. Prosser (Ed. ), Tourism and hospitality exploration: Australian and