Technology Improvement Following Independence

NEW SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND FRESH SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA ADVANCEMENT DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA by simply Pikay Richardson by Pikay Richardson

PROCEEDINGS OF THE STRATA CONSOLIDATING WORKSHOP SESSION 1: GLOBALISATION - STRATEGIES OF INTERNATIONAL CORPORATIONS, INTERCONTINENTAL RESEARCH CO-OPERATION AND RAMIFICATIONS FOR S& T GUIDELINES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Brussels, 22& 23 04 2002

Western european Commission Directorate-General for Research Unit RTD-K. 2 – " Research and Technology foresight; links with the IPTS” June 2002

New Science, Technology and Innovation Innovations In India

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New Science, Technology and Advancement Developments In India

By simply Pikay Richardson

New Scientific research, Technology and Innovation Developments In India

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Fuzy

This newspaper reviews the science and technology policies of India and exactly how these possess fashioned India's technology capability over the years. This shows that whilst India features achieved tremendous strides in regards to science, technology and innovation, inappropriate policies in the past include hampered the introduction of an effective countrywide innovation system. The newspaper concludes simply by drawing lessons for the introduction of an EU-wide science and technology plan.

New Science, Technology and Innovation Advancements In India

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1 ) Introduction

1 . 1 The Changing Scientific and Technological Landscape In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States was internationally pre-eminent in research and technology. The only region comparable to the US in terms of every capita ground breaking output during this time was Switzerland and much of any significant scientific and technological effort and success remained the exclusive maintain of a few advanced industrialised countries. In the last 3 decades or so, nevertheless , the monetary landscape has evolved considerably as well as continues to transform with amazing rapidity. A predicament of proper economic parity has come to exist in the triad regions of United states, Western Europe and the Pacific cycles Rim (including China). Increasing globalisation means that several more nations have become significant players around the world monetary stage as well as the rules in the game possess subsequently transformed. To some extent, it truly is no longer possible for any one player to dictate the rules of the game - to determine what is correct or incorrect, or precisely what is or what ought to be. In regards to science, technology and advancement, the supremacy of the United States plus the few other monopoly powers has become seriously questioned and to some extent eroded. A number of developments possess materialised. First of all, there has been improved competition by fast followers, which has exposed advanced nations around the world to competition via fake by companies in hitherto less progressive countries. Second of all, there has been a far more rapid diffusion of perceptive capital. It had been aided by the trend in telecommunications, which has made the notion of space and time almost irrelevant. A result of this is that the advantage furnished by a given amount of creativity decreases quickly with increased diffusion of perceptive capital. Thirdly, competition to get investments simply by multinational companies (MNEs) mean that these companies progressively need to locate investments exactly where circumstances provide the greatest opportunity, including Research and Development (R& D) activities. Finally, there has been a reliable, albeit gradual, emergence of more nations around the world that are trailblazers. These have got consciously committed themselves to the expansion of their innovative ability with the result that the traditionally small group of highly-innovative advanced countries offers expanded. In addition , the Scandinavian countries, the newly industrialising countries of South East Asia, China and tiawan and India are also beginning make the move from imitator to innovator.

New Scientific research, Technology and Innovation Developments In India

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This kind of paper charts the various phases of scientific research, technology and innovation (STI) policies...

Recommendations: (1) pp 74-96 9) Desai, A V and Khan M U (1986) The Effects of Microelectronics on Job

and Efficiency in India, The Un University, New-technology Centre, Feasibility Study, Maastricht

11)

ICICI (1994) Efficiency in Indian Manufacturing: Non-public Corporate Sector,

Internationalisation: Issues and Guidelines for Growing Countries, London and Ny, Routledge. 16) Lall, S i9000 (1987) Learning to Industrialise: The Acquisition of Scientific

Capability by India, London, Macmillan

Overview of Economics and Statistics, 39, 312-32. 21) 22) UNCTAD, (2001) Universe Investment Survey, UN, Geneva. UNIDO/EIU (1995) India: Commercial Development Survey, Geneva.

23)

Urata, H (1998) Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Asia: Their Impact on Export

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